Yahweh Warns His Subject Nations Not To Rebel Against Him--Psalm 2
Psalm 2 is a very important poem. It is closely connected with 2 Samuel 7; 1 Chronicles 17; Psalms 89; 132; and several prophetic texts. The New Testament quotes various lines and verses in Psalm 2, for example: Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5; 5:5 in Psalm 2:7; Acts 4:25-26 in Psalm 2:1-2. Psalm 2 naturally falls into FOUR parts of three verses each and thus presenting a well thought out and structured poem.
I. The Subject Nations contemplate Rebellion. Psalm 2:1-3.
a. The psalmist begins by asking in a startled tone: "Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot?" Synonymous parallelism shows that the "nations" are the "peoples." These peoples are TALKING in anticipation about the future: they CONSPIRE and PLOT. Their "kings" and "rulers" take counsel about what they should do. At his point, nothing has happened. At the same time, the nations and their leaders are not happy about their present circumstances. 2:1-2b.
b. The conspiracy or plot of these kings and nations is against Yahweh and his anointed one, that is, the ruler of Israel in Jerusalem. The composer does not identify this anointed one, but he is clearly some king of Israel or Judah from Solomon to the fall of Judah under King Zedekiah in 587 BCE. Their decision is to burst their bonds asunder and cast their cords from them. This language shows that right now these nations are subject to Yahweh and his anointed one. 2:2c-3.
II. Yahweh Responds to the Plot of his Subject Peoples. Psalm 2:4-6.
a. As king, Yahweh "sits" in the heavens. The words "sit," "sat," "set," "seated," and "sitting" often denote the idea of a king "reigning" over his people. Thus, here Yahweh is "king." Since he is securely and confidently in control, when people oppose or rebel against him, he LAUGHS. There are many different kinds of laughter. One kind of laughter is joy. Another kind of laughter is doubt. In Psalm 2:4; 59:8, the laughter is that of holding in derision, as the synonymous parallelism in Psalms 2:4; 59:8 shows. This kind of laughter means something like: "You must be kidding," "the very idea," "you cannot be serious," "What are you thinking of?" etc. 2:4.
b. Since his subjects are planning to rebel against him, Yahweh's "wrath" or "fury" is his response. Many people reject the biblical testimony that Yahweh is a God of wrath and anger and fury and punishment. But throughout history, Yahweh has demonstrated that when human beings and nations develop hardened hearts, in time Yahweh responds in wrath and punishes the wicked. 2:5.
c. Yahweh emphatically declares: "I have SET my king on Zion, my holy hill." Here, again, the verb "set" is a royal term meaning "reign." or "rule." When Yahweh makes a decision, no human being or nation can deflect his powerful word. Since Zion=Jerusalem was Yahweh's chosen city, the earthly king under the heavenly king Yahweh rules in Jerusalem. Yahweh is a holy God, and thus his city sits on a holy hill. The same term appears in Psalms 3:4; 15:1. 2:6.
III. The Earthly King Responds to Yahweh's Proclamation. Psalm 2:7-9.
a. When Yahweh declares, "I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill," the king declares to his people: "I will tell of the decree of the Lord" (in verse 6), he [Yahweh] said to me [the present speaker, the earthly king of Israel], "You [the earthly king] are my SON; TODAY I have BEGOTTEN YOU." Every king of Israel is "the son of God" (the same testimony appears in 2 Samuel 7:14; Psalm 89:26-27; Isaiah 9:6), and Yahweh is his "Father." Thus, the earthly king is subservient to Yahweh his Father, and whenever the earthly king disobeys Yahweh, Yahweh will punish him, as 2 Samuel 7:14-15 proclaims. In this context, then, "TODAY" is the day on which a new king steps up on the throne of Israel for the first time, THE DAY OF ACCESSION. The term "begotten" is a royal term meaning that Yahweh CHOSE this person and is responsible for putting him on the throne. 2:7.
b. Then Yahweh promises the earthly king that Yahweh will give him a "heritage," which in this case is the nations. As son of God, the earthly king naturally becomes the HEIR of God's estate, and his heritage is "the ends of the earth." The earthly king of Israel is the highest of the kings of the earth--Psalm 89:27. Yahweh rules the nations emanating from Jerusalem, his chosen and holy city. See Psalm 48:1-2. At Yahweh's own time and in his own way, the time will come when Yahweh will actually carry out this vision which he declares--Isaiah 2:2-5; Micah 4:1-5. 2:8.
c. Yahweh continues to promise his earthly king, his "son," that Yahweh will break his enemies with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. Powerful nations often assume they are in control, and can overcome Yahweh's power and will. But Yahweh always prevails. 2:9.
IV. The Composer admonishes the nations to continue to be subject to Yahweh or else Yahweh will destroy them. Psalm 2:10-12.
a. Returning to Psalm 2:1-2, the psalmist addresses the kings and rulers of earth to "be wise," "be warned," not to be foolish and rebel against Yahweh, but rather continue to be subservient to him, the King of kings and Lord of lords. 2:10.
b. He continues to admonish the nations to "serve" Yahweh with fear, and with trembling "kiss his feet" (this is the reading of the New Revised Standard Version) or "kiss the son" [that is, the earthly king, which is the reading of the Hebrew Massoretic text]. 2:11.
c. If the subject nations refuse to be subservient to Yahweh, Yahweh's "anger" or "wrath" will be kindled, Yahweh will overthrow his enemies, and they will perish, alluding to the warning in verse 5. 2:12.
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